Electricians are routinely led to believe by their instructors that electricity consists of a flow of electron beads. They never question such assumptions because they have this unwarranted notion that such matters have already been settled.
The Quantum atom everyone learns in school
Question: what prevents the orbiting electron bead from flying away?
What entity keeps it faithful to the nucleus?
The most popular version of electricity is the one proposed by Quantum Mechanics. Quantum holds that electron beads can fly and flow through the vacuum from cathode to anode without there being any atoms or ions in between (i.e., a total absolute vacuum: nothing at all).
Electrons flow through the vacuum without atoms being present.
The classical version requires that the electron bead must hop from atom to atom and push the resident valence bead out of its socket. This electron bead now travels and bumps another electron in another atom and so on down the line. This version of electricity more or less reflects what 19th Century researchers and theorists believed (i.e., Classical Mechanics).
Electron beads flow from atom to atom.
The worldly wisdom is that there is no such thing as a perfect vacuum because it is impossible to pump all matter out of a vacuum chamber. Hence, there’s no way to tell who is right through an experiment. As a result, Quantum has no uniform scientific notion of what the word vacuum means. There is everything from a synonym of aether to false vacuum to zero point energy.
Actually, the issue of vacuum is not one to be resolved through experiment, but rather through definitions and reasoning. This is a conceptual issue and not one to be settled in a lab!
The Rope Hypothesis
Under the Rope Hypothesis, the atom is not a planetary system and electricity does not consist of flowing electron beads. Electricity is mediated by a continuous row of merged electron membranes.
And vacuum is a synonym of space and nothing:
nothing (space, vacuum): that which has no shape
something (object, thing, entity, medium): that which has shape
These antonyms enable us to use them consistently, rationally… scientifically in a dissertation.
We start out with an assumption that challenges Quantum Mechanics: all atoms in existence are physically interconnected. Light is not mediated by photon beads that travel, nor does it ‘travel’ as a bead or as a wave from atom to nowhere.
The invisible, intangible agent that mediates light consists of two twined threads: a rope. This DNA-like double helix binds any two atoms.
Imagine two atoms bound by a twined pair of threads: a DNA-like rope.
Light can never get lost because it is a torsion propagating along the tight EM rope that binds any two atoms.
However, the threads fork out at the boundary of the atom. One thread extends to the center of the atom. The other loops around and weaves a ball-of-yarn membrane (electron shell) that encapsulates the proton star.
Constructing the H atom
When the atom does its ‘quantum jump’, the atomic membrane is simply expanding and contracting, absorbing and releasing in the process a link of the EM rope (i.e., a quantum of energy). This mechanism torques the rope. The atom is a tiny heart pumping 3D torsion waves to every atom in existence.